Editor’s Notes: China’s STEM Students in U.S. Pose Problem
There is a lot of conjecture on whether the People’s Republic of China is catching up, has caught up, or is even surpassing the United States in various technology fields that will be critical for economic dominance for the remainder of the century.
It’s not a simple “yes” or “no” answer as there are many fields — 5G, bio-tech, quantum sciences, space tech, advanced computing, material sciences, hypersonics, to name but a few — and how the two nations compare in each category is a complex question.
Both nations have top secret programs and trade secrets in many of these fields so the general public may truly never know how advanced one country is over the other.
But there is one indicator that speaks to how China sees the United States and American technology and know-how. And that’s the number of undergraduate and graduate science, technology, engineering and mathematics students it sends to study at U.S. universities.
Just how many students are there? A Center for Security and Emerging Technology paper released in October tried to get at that answer by using four different data sources. The study, “Estimating the Number of Chinese STEM Students in the United States” by Jacob Feldgoise and Remco Zwetsloot came up with 45,720 undergraduates studying agriculture, biology, computers, engineering, mathematics and physical sciences and 76,060 in either master’s or Ph.D. programs in the same fields.
Including the non-STEM fields, there are 143,320 undergraduates and 129,400 postgraduates.
Here’s the news flash: every single one of these quarter of a million students are potential assets for Chinese intelligence services.
That’s not to say that they are all actively spying in the United States. That’s not to say they are all trained in espionage. That would be an insult to real covert operatives who spend years learning their tradecraft.
But the simple fact of the matter is that it is illegal for any citizen of the People’s Republic of China to not cooperate with China’s security services. That means that these students can be approached before, during or after their time in the United States by Chinese intelligence officials and debriefed on what they learned or what they saw, or tasked with carrying out certain actions after they arrive.
And if they don’t want to comply, then when they return, it’s off to some kangaroo court and then prison. Maybe they didn’t want to spy. Too bad. That’s life in a police state.
Just to be clear: this law is for citizens of the People’s Republic of China. It does not extend to citizens of Taiwan, Singapore or the Chinese diaspora.
So if the United States is engaged in a technology war with China, why are American universities training so many “foot soldiers?” Why is it giving student visas to de facto spies?
If one wanted to take a hammer to the problem, the knee-jerk reactionary solution would be to simply ban all students coming from the PRC. Congress had some bills before it this session proposing just that. This proposed solution becomes less realistic after Inauguration Day.
But is this a case where a scalpel is a better tool than a hammer? Is this a case where the action would have unintended and unforeseen consequences?
The “risks and benefits [of hosting Chinese students and researchers] differ across fields and degree levels,” the report’s authors noted. The data they accumulated is “necessary for formulating risk-management strategies that do not unnecessarily harm U.S. universities and innovation,” they added.
Universities, of course, have been accustomed to the tuition and fees these students bring and need funding to remain strong.
And academic freedom is a hallmark of U.S. institutions of higher learning and a source of their strength.
Yet the United States draws a line at allowing these students, or any foreign nationals, to work on national security contracts.
Academic freedom has its limits. Those firewalls should be strengthened and institutions that run afoul of these laws should have their ability to bid on national security contracts terminated. A foreign student caught spying should be treated as any individual breaking U.S. espionage laws would. They should do time in a U.S. prison.
Meanwhile, let’s as a nation face the reality: We’re not filling our universities with homegrown master’s and Ph.D. students in STEM fields. That is a U.S. shortcoming. Tuition, fees, and onerous student loans for U.S. citizens wanting to pursue these degrees should not be a barrier.
Reports in the U.S. academic community have emerged that Taiwanese, Singaporeans, and ethnic Chinese from nations other than China, as well as Chinese Americans are being harassed at our ports of entry. Ticking off our friends and allies in the China-U.S. tech war is unwise and counterproductive.
Profiling U.S. citizens is just plain wrong. Remember: a scalpel, not a hammer.
And finally, China is investing a lot in these students and wants them to come back.
We should make that choice harder. Instead of legislation banning these students, we should do everything possible to lure them here to play for our team. That would include financial incentives and an easy path to U.S. citizenship.
If the next Albert Einstein in quantum technology arrives here as a graduate student, every effort should be made to make sure he or she doesn’t want to go back to live in a police state.