AFSOC Uses ‘Dagger’ Teams as its Pointy Tip of the Spear
Air Force photo by Senior Airman Christopher Callaway
In its recently released “Strategic Guidance” document, Air Force Special Operations Command leadership articulates the principle that “AFSOC’s human capital is our competitive advantage.”
One set of tactical organizations where that human capital stands in the spotlight are AFSOC’s deployed aircraft ground response element, or DAGRE — small teams within the Air Force’s security forces that receive specialized training to support the command’s assets and personnel in austere locations around the globe.
The DAGRE program was implemented in 2008, and reflected the realization that security for AFSOC assets was not being properly protected under the previous force protection plan set forth by anti-terrorism officers.
Prior to the implementation of DAGRE — pronounced “dagger” — most of the command’s platforms were expected to be protected by users, who were generally the same personnel operating and maintaining the asset. However, planners assessed that security could not be just an extra duty for pilots and maintainers. A dedicated, highly trained team of security specialists was needed so that aircrew members and other personnel could give the utmost attention to their critical primary duties.
The implementation and expansion of the DAGRE program over the last decade has reflected the need to maintain security as a high priority for transitioning AFSOC aircraft and personnel.
DAGRE operations currently fall under AFSOC headquarters. Units in the Continental United States belong to a security forces squadron while at home station but continue to meet the requirements of headquarters and supported overseas units while deployed.
Although unable to discuss units’ specific “deployed structure” due to operational security issues, members of one DAGRE team associated with the 27th Special Operations Wing at Cannon Air Force Base, New Mexico, recently explained to National Defense that the structure of DAGRE teams generally includes a non-commissioned officer in charge, serving as team leader, along with an assistant team leader and “remaining team members.”
According to a team leader, Technical Sgt. Cory Irvin, DAGRE is a specialty within Air Force security forces, or military police.
The program is open to all security forces airmen within the ranks of senior airman to master sergeant who meet the AFSOC physical and professional standards. Once qualified, team members have the ability to stay within the DAGRE sections for an extended period of time. Alternately, they can also go back to the broader security forces community.
The “DAGRE pipeline” is located at Hurlburt Field, Florida, under the 371st Special Operations Combat Training Squadron. While at Hurlburt, members learn different skill trades, including tactical casualty combat care, defensive driving, tactical communications, tactical security details, land navigation and a wide variety of firing courses.
Additional training courses and qualifications that DAGRE personnel are able to obtain range from air assault to certain leadership courses like Ranger school.
“As a DAGRE team leader, I look for individuals that are highly competent, critical thinkers who have great communication skills and have the flexibility/adaptability to execute any task that may be required in a multitude of environments,” Irvin said. “They must be skilled shooters who always increase their abilities and strive for perfection. They must be physically fit, since all DAGREs must maintain above a 90 percent [Air Force physical fitness test] score to be considered deployment eligible.”
Physical fitness not only enables DAGREs to endure the strains and pressures of the job, but a physically fit team presents a psychological security deterrent, he added.
“Ultimately, a security forces member who wants to be DAGRE needs to do so for the right reasons. With the high tempo and strenuous training, the member must be selfless and a great team player who is always looking out for the men and women they work with and protect,” he said.
Irvin reiterated that the DAGRE core mission is security, elaborating, “That equates to protecting AFSOC aircraft or personnel on the ground safely by ensuring proper force protection measures are met when aircraft are transiting through austere locations.”
DAGRE teams can be tasked to perform fly-away security, which involves protecting aircraft on the ground. While there, they also can perform “site security and conduct airfield threat assessments for future planning.”
Asked to elaborate on some past scenarios, one team member said some recent fly-away security missions have involved “protecting high profile individuals” in multiple countries as these members traversed from different airfields. Additionally, in austere locations, they noted that DAGRE teams have previously provided security for detainee transfers and have taken part in voting ballet transfers during critical elections within some countries.
Acknowledging the broad skill sets required for such diverse operational profiles, Irvin said that team proficiency is maintained by the fact that DAGREs are in a state of constant training.
“One of the biggest differences between DAGRE and conventional security forces is the required need of ever-revolving training cycles that enable us to keep our core skill set that consists of mandatory evaluated tasks current,” he said. “Through communication with [AFSOC headquarters], a basic framework is developed of what future operations may exist and training is constantly tailored to meet the needs of the area of operations that we will be in.”
The training also includes participation in a wide range of exercises, including multiple Special Operations Command humanitarian assistance/disaster relief events, combat search-and-rescue scenarios, and joint services recovery operations.
Recent exercise involvement has included the Jaded Thunder joint service exercise, Exercise Flintlock in Africa, and the annual Emerald Warrior — a Defense Department event focusing on irregular warfare and designed to hone special operations forces air and ground combat skills.
Describing team activities and host nation interaction in “the deployed environment,” Irvin said, “It is essential for the DAGRE team leader to develop priorities of work and work-rest cycles for his/her team,” adding that “assessing the level of host nation security available as well as building rapport with the host nation’s forces enables a more tailored security posture.”
A host nation’s security forces might have the capability of providing physical barriers — such as fencing, jersey barriers, ropes or cones — or lighting to the team, which could enhance and extend the DAGRE’s security posture, he said.
In terms of their own equipment, DAGRE teams use a variety of materiel solutions not necessarily found in broader Air Force inventories.
“DAGREs are outfitted to be more of a lighter, leaner and lethal asset,” said one team member. “The main goal is to continuously improve DAGRE’s equipment based off evolving technology and modernized mission changes. Communications equipment will include multiband handheld radios. We also use night vision equipment. As for mobility platforms, DAGREs have been known to operate off-road vehicles and light armored vehicles.”
Irvin highlighted the teams’ impact as potential force multipliers.
“DAGREs are experts at their trade and are able to adapt to any situation that might arise,” he said. “Being flexible has always been a key mindset within DAGRE operations.
With security always being a necessity, DAGREs bring a unique perspective and have the ability to work with all special operations forces.”
Meanwhile, recent incidents around the world, like the January 2020 Islamist extremist attack on a small military base in Africa used by U.S. and Kenyan troops, is likely to prompt a greater appreciation in some circles for the teams and their capabilities.
DAGREs are responsible for conducting defensive operations, enhancing force movement, providing operational force protection, providing security for operational forces, sustaining deployed forces and protecting the force, Irvin said.
“They are ‘tip of the spear’ security forces subject matter experts that bring anti-terrorism/force protection advisement to deployed mission commanders,” he said. “Their ability to tailor security to any environment and mission set is second to none and would be of great benefit to any SOF command across the Department of Defense.”
Asked how he envisions the DAGRE program might evolve over the next five years, Irvin said, “I see the program focusing their training to near-peer adversaries. As the demand for DAGREs grow, I also see the selection and training process becoming more metrics based and selective in nature to ensure that quality DAGREs continue to be developed in line with the SOF truths that ‘quality is better than quantity’ and that ‘SOF can’t be mass produced.’”
Topics: Air Force News, Special Operations, Special Operations-Low Intensity Conflict
This is complicatedcd at 3:03 PM
I am army. Fast movers were always great but a problem to get. The marines have close air support. So should the army. Organic, not AF. I have received ranger training. While I appreciate AF needs to defend itself, ranger training is 90% not applicable and a waste of a training slot. Were it up to me, I would give army A-10's and the equivalent, give the corp/army commander organic army air support, set up a liason when AF fast burners with high caliber where needed, and not let AF use slots intended for ground guys like ranger school. They have no business on the ground except to defend their birds. And just like we rely on them for air support, they can rely on us for ground defense.
DAGRE teams make sense in that Airmen soldiers need to protect the CV-22s and MC-130s that make up AFSOC. During an Evac, nothing would be worse if the evacuees cannot escape due to lack of organic firepower (similar to Bruce Willis's movie, "Tears of the Sun"). USAF PJs might provide some covering fire, but having DAGRE ensures a specialized offensive/defensive element with carbines, rifles, and machine guns will be on the ground providing pinpoint covering fire for the aircraft that aircrews cannot do with their miniguns and machine guns. Someone needs to stay behind and guard the aircraft that flew in for the rescue and aircrews cannot be expected to do this, let alone expect them to dismount the heavy machine guns off the aircraft for ground protection (nearly impossible).Cenebar at 8:28 AM
This is a continual problem. The Air Force had a major problem in Vietnam, for example, because the ground security structure developed was focused only on securing permanent bases, with a naïve assumption that expeditionary security would be provided by the Army or an indigenous host nation. It never fully adapted during that conflict to providing adequate security at in theater bases, relying on scrounged weapons and vehicles, ad hoc augmentees from other Air Force units at the base (my Dad, who had a rigger AFSC at the time, was an augmentee at Ton Son Nhut during Tet - and probably a fortunate pick-up as he had prior service as a rigger and light weapons expert with the 10th SFG(A) , including a six month prior tour at Nha Trang and A Schau. I say fortunate because a lot of airmen during that time frame received NO tactical or weapons training in basic). To this day I still have doubts that the collective mindset of the Air Force has grappled with the fact that it needs to have not just adequate security for permanent basis, but also the excess capacity to provide security at forward airfields it operates out of.George at 2:45 PM
The Air Force is not alone in having such blind spots. The Army never seems to learn its lesson regarding the need for civil affairs and constabulary type units. They aren't as glamorous as infantry and armored formations - but the Army has needed them in EVERY war they have ever fought and never had enough. The Navy has dangerously cut its ASW forces over the past decade or so - carriers get a lot of headlines, but you need to screen them - and logistics convoys, amphibious groups, etc. DoD needs to pull its head out and realize that they need to consider a TRUE total force concept.
Sounds exactly like AMC’s Phoenix Raven program. That started in the 90s.Rob Price at 10:03 AM
The army isn’t capable of securing air craft. Birds require varying levels and types of security depending on the situation. Not to mention actually working on a functioning flight line without hurting yourself or breaking something incredibly expensive.HairyLary at 4:13 AM
DAGRE and Raven are pretty similar, biggest difference is Raven tend to land on air fields and DAGRE gets a bunch of silly gunfighter training.
DAGRE is a cool program but it’s not quite what the Air Force is selling it as.
To several of the comments above in re depending on the Army for air base defense: as long ago as 1950 at Kimpo AB we learned that this contention was and is tragically untrue. This was revisited time and again in VN p, the sand box and today. USAF SP/SF have been the Air Forces infantry since Korea. I suggest you familiarize yourself with applicable history such as tha of Safeside, SPECS, GLCM, et al.Jim Yearsley at 1:03 PM
To the Army guy who made the first comment. What do you mean you have “received” Ranger training? Sounds like your not a graduate. Regarding Security Forces receiving that training, you do realize it’s a leadership course and most graduates don’t go to Bart, but take what they learn back to their units?Michael O’Neill at 6:44 PM
To the army guy talking about ranger school, for the most part USAF do not take spots away from Army soldiers . It's your school, you guys get preference to fill slots obviously. When there are open slots and they can't get them filled by a soldier that's when they slide an airman into the slot. You guys lose nothing, since you had no one to fill that slot. Better to slide an airman that can get quality training and take it back to their unit. Also no, we don't rely on the Army for ground defense and we haven't since 1947....if that was the case than we would just go back to being the Army Air Corps.RS at 9:56 AM